Professor Ramanan works on probability theory, stochastic processes and their applications. She is an interdisciplinary researcher who has developed novel mathematical frameworks for the analysis of stochastic networks, Markov random fields and interacting particle systems, which arise as models in a variety of fields ranging from operations research and engineering to statistical physics and neuroscience. Her work combines tools from several fields including discrete probability, stochastic analysis and partial differential equations. She has also made fundamental contributions to the study of reflected processes, large deviations theory, high-dimensional probability and applications to asymptotic convex geometry. She also has four patents to her name. She was awarded the Erlang prize in 2006 for "outstanding contributions to applied probability" by the INFORMS Applied Probability Society. She was a recipient of a Medallion from the Institute for Mathematical Statistics in 2015, a Simons Fellowship in 2018 and a Guggenheim Fellowship in 2020, and is an elected Fellow of several societies.